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Table 3 Multiple logistic regression analysis of factors used for differentiation between HF-related and pulmonary-related acute dyspnea in prehospital emergency settinga

From: Combination of lung ultrasound (a comet-tail sign) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in differentiating acute heart failure from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma as cause of acute dyspnea in prehospital emergency setting

Factor OR (95% CI)b P valuec
Ultrasound examination 53.7 (28.6 to 83.5) < 0.001
NT-proBNP 14.3 (8.1 to 29.4) < 0.001
Orthopnea 6.9 (1.9 to 18.39 < 0.001
Rales 5.1 (1.5 to 12.8) 0.014
Troponin T 2.1 (1.3 to 4.6) 0.018
petCO2 7.6 (2.9 to 19.6) < 0.001
HF medications 2.7 (1.3 to 5.1) 0.031
Asthma/COPD medications 0.12 (0.03 to 0.42) 0.028
Previous HF 7.4 (2.3 to 20.4) < 0.001
Fever 0.17 (0.06 to 0.49) 0.017
  1. aOR, odds ratio; petCO2, partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide; NT-proBNP, amino terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide; HF, heart failure; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CI, confidence interval. bUnivariable screening was performed on clinical, historical and biochemical variables to identify potential predictors of HF. Odds ratios for the presence of HF were generated and expressed with 95% CI. cMultivariable analysis with logistic regression was used to identify potential predictor variables of a final diagnosis of HF (variables from univariate analysis with P < 0.05 for entry into model).