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Table 1 Summary of included studies

From: Clinical neurophysiological assessment of sepsis-associated brain dysfunction: a systematic review

  Ref Study design Location (ICU patients,%) Number Inclusion criteria Patients with sepsis/infections (number, %) APACHE II score Survival (number, %) Patients on sedatives and/or opiates (number, %) Topic Time to EEG/EPs (days) EEG/EPs as primary outcome?
Case-control study (patients with systemic infection versus controls)
  16 P Internal medicine (NA) 73 CAP 43 (59%) 13 ± 4 NA NA qEEG VEP 1 Y
Case series of patients with sepsis
  21 P Medical and surgical ICU (100%) 71 SS with brain dysfunctiona 71 (100%) NA (SAPS II 49 (38 to 60)) 48 (68%) 49 (69%) EEG NA N
  20 NA ICU (100%) 30 SSa 30 (100%) 32 ± 6 NA 30 (100%) EEG 4 N
  17 P Medical ICU (100%) 68 SS 68 (100%) NA (APACHE III, 101 ± 26) 31 (46%) 33 (49%) SSEP 1 to 2 Y
  19 NA ICU (100%) 14 Sepsis 14 (100%) 18.6 ± 6.0 8 (57%) 12 (85%) qEEG 1 to 5 Y
  18 P ICU (100%) 69 Severe Infectionsb 69 (100%) NA 46 (67%) 0 EEG NA Y
  22 NA ICU(100%) 6 Severe Infectionsb 6 (100%) NA 1 (17%) 0 EEG AEP 1 to 11 N
  23 NA NA (NA) 14 Severe Infectionsb 14 (100%) NA 14 (100%) NA EEG NA Y
Case series or case-control studies including patients with and without sepsis
  32 R Surgical ICU (100%) 154 Encephalopathy +/− seizuresa 100 (65%) NA 73 (47%) 106 (70%) cEEG 4 to 9 Y
  28 R Hospital (70%) 154 Encephalopathy 72 (47%) NA 135 (88%) 20 (13%) EEG NA Y
  27 R Hospital (81%) 105 Encephalopathy and TWs 62 (59%) NA 84 (80%) 20 (19%) EEG NA Y
  24 R Hospital (88%) 400 GPDs 144 (36%) NA 249 (62%) NA cEEG NA Y
  30 R Medical ICU (100%) 201 Encephalopathy +/− seizures 120 (60%) NA NA 29 (14%) cEEG NA Y
  26 P Adult ICU (100%) 125 Patients on MVa 78 (62%) 27.4 ± 8.2 93 (74%) 123 (98%) qEEG (BIS) NA Y
  29 P Surgical ICU (100%) 54 Post-abdominal surgery 24 (44%) NA (SAPS II, 34 (22 to 48)) NA 0 AEP 1 Y
  31 P Burns ICU (100%) 64 SIRS 44 (69%) NA NA NA EEG NA N
  25 P Medical ICU (100%) 103 MOF and Encephalopathy 74 (72%) NA (APACHE III, 101 ± 24) 52 (50%) 60 (58%) SSEP 1 to 2 Y
  1. aexcluded pre-existing neurological or psychiatric diseases; bexcluded infections of the central nervous system. AEP, auditory evoked potentials; APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; BIS, bispectral index; CAP, community-acquired pneumonia; cEEG, continuous EEG monitoring; CI, confidence interval; CNS, central nervous system; EEG, electroencephalogram; GPDs, general periodic discharges; ICU, intensive care unit; MOF, multiple organ failure; MV, mechanical ventilation; N, No; NA, not available; P, prospective; qEEG, quantitative electroencephalography; R, retrospective; SAPS, Simplified Acute Physiology Score; SE, status epilepticus; SIRS, systemic inflammatory response syndrome; SS, severe sepsis or septic shock; SSEP, somatosensory evoked potential; TWs, triphasic waves; WBC, white blood cell; VEP, visual evoked potentials; Y, Yes.