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Table 1 Baseline characteristics for patients in shock according to LVEF assessed within 1 day after arrest

From: Shock subtypes by left ventricular ejection fraction following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

Patient characteristic LVEF > 40% (n = 78) LVEF ≤ 40% (n = 84) p value Initial LVEF unknowna (n = 73)
Age (years) 63 ± 15 64 ± 15 0.73 64 ± 20
Female 26 (33%) 20 (24%) 0.22 27 (37%)
Prior medical history
 Coronary disease 18 (23%) 34 (40%) 0.02 18 (25%)b
 Congestive heart failure 12 (15%) 34 (40%) < 0.01 17 (23%)b
 Chronic pulmonary disease 12 (15%) 11 (13%) 0.82 17 (23%)
Arrest characteristics
 Witnessed arrest 56 (72%) 68 (81%) 0.20 48 (66%)b
 Bystander CPR 41 (53%) 50 (60%) 0.43 37 (51%)
 Time from collapse to CPR initiation (min) 2 (1–7) 2 (0–6) 0.97 2 (0–5)
 Duration of CPR before sustained ROSC (min) 15 (10–38) 18 (9–30) 0.65 20 (11.5–42)
 Initial rhythm VT/ VF 25 (32%) 61 (73%) < 0.01 22 (30%)b,c
 Comatose after ROSC 72 (92%) 80 (95%) 0.52 68 (93%)
 Therapeutic hypothermia after ROSC 59 (76%) 75 (89%) 0.02 51 (70%)b,c
Markers of cardiac injury
 Peak troponin in first 24 h (ng/ml) 0.3 (0.1–1.0) 0.9 (0.3–2.7) < 0.01 0.3 (0.1–0.9)b,c
 ST-elevation myocardial infarction 8 (10%) 23 (27%) .01 6 (8%)b,c
 Coronary angiography during hospitalization 18 (23%) 45 (54%) < 0.01 13 (18%)c
 Coronary stent placed during hospitalization 7 (9%) 20 (24%) 0.01 6 (8%)b
 Intraaortic balloon pump during hospitalization 3 (4%) 14 (17%) < 0.01 6 (8%)
 LVEF (%) within ≤ 1 day after arrest 59 ± 10 26 ± 9 < 0.01 N/A
Markers of systemic illness severity
 APACHE II score 35 ± 6 36 ± 6 0.09 35 ± 7
 SOFA on day 1 12 ± 3 12 ± 3 0.67 12 ± 3
 Number of organ failures on day 1d 3 ± 1 3 ± 1 0.97 3 ± 1
 Initial vasopressor dose, norepinephrine equivalent (μg/min) 7.5 (2.5–20.1) 10.1 (2.6–21.5) 0.45 10.4 (3.5–21.7)
 Initial lactate (mmol/L) 5.8 ± 4.7 4.1 ± 2.8 0.01 6.6 ± 5.2b,c
 Peak lactate in first 24 h (mmol/L) 5.9 ± 4.7 4.6 ± 3.1 0.04 7.6 ± 6.1b,c
Initial respiratory characteristics
 Tidal volume (ml/kg PBW) 8.0 ± 1.9 8.1 ± 1.8 0.79 8.0 ± 1.3
 PEEP (cmH2O) 5 (5–8) 5 (5–10) 0.14 5 (5–5)b,c
 Peak inspiratory pressure (cmH2O) 27 ± 8 26 ± 8 0.75 27 ± 9
 FiO2 100 (80–100) 100 (60–100) 0.40 100 (60–100)
 pH 7.22 ± 0.19 7.23 ± 0.15 0.53 7.18 ± 0.20
 PaCO2 (mmHg) 44 (39–62) 47 (37–56) 0.66 45 (37–57.5)
 PaO2 (mmHg) 212 ± 128 202 ± 130 0.62 229 ± 167
 PaO2:FiO2 237 ± 141 237 ± 148 0.99 258 ± 174
Volume resuscitation in first 6 h (L) 2.9 ± 1.8 2.7 ± 1.7 0.50 2.9 ± 2.0
Volume challenge ≥ 30 ml/kg in first 6 h 42 (54%) 41 (49%) 0.53 37 (51%)
Volume resuscitation in first 24 h (L) 6.1 ± 3.5 5.6 ± 3.1 0.34 6.0 ± 3.0
  1. Descriptive statistics shown as mean ± standard deviation, median (interquartile range), or number (%) and compared with t, Wilcoxon rank-sum, or chi-square tests as appropriate
  2. LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation, VT ventricular tachycardia, VF ventricular fibrillation, N/A not applicable, APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment score, PBW predicted body weight, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, FiO 2  fraction of inspired oxygen, PaCO 2 partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood, PaO 2 partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood
  3. aLVEF not assessed within ≤ 1 day post arrest, including 42 patients in whom LVEF was never assessed during admission and 31 patients in whom assessment occurred > 1 day after arrest
  4. bp < 0.05 compared to patients with LVEF ≤ 40%. No values differed significantly compared to patients with LVEF > 40%
  5. cp < 0.05 compared to all included patients with LVEF assessment within ≤ 1 day post arrest
  6. dCardiovascular failure defined as systolic blood pressure ≤ 90 mmHg or any vasopressor use. Respiratory failure defined by invasive mechanical ventilation. Coagulation, renal, and hepatic organ failures defined according to Brussels multiple organ dysfunction criteria