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  1. Currently, there is a lack of evidence to guide optimal care for acute kidney injury (AKI) survivors. Therefore, post-discharge care by a multidisciplinary care team (MDCT) may improve these outcomes. This stu...

    Authors: Peerapat Thanapongsatorn, Kamolthip Chaikomon, Nuttha Lumlertgul, Khanitha Yimsangyad, Akarathep Leewongworasingh, Win Kulvichit, Phatadon Sirivongrangson, Sadudee Peerapornratana, Weerachai Chaijamorn, Yingyos Avihingsanon and Nattachai Srisawat

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:322

    Content type: Research

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  2. This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2021. Other selected articles can be found online at 

    Authors: Marlies Ostermann and Nuttha Lumlertgul

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:313

    Content type: Review

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  3. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a heterogeneous syndrome, and the identification of homogeneous subgroups and phenotypes is the first step toward precision critical care. We aimed to explore whet...

    Authors: Xiaowei Liu, Yusheng Jiang, Xiaonan Jia, Xiaohui Ma, Ci Han, Nana Guo, Yahui Peng, Haitao Liu, Yingnan Ju, Xiangfeng Luo, Xueting Li, Yue Bu, Jin Zhang, Yansong Liu, Yan Gao, Mingyan Zhao…

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:320

    Content type: Research

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  4. Intensive care unit acquired weakness is a serious problem, contributing to respiratory failure and reductions in ambulation. Currently, there is no pharmacological therapy for this condition. Studies indicate...

    Authors: Gerald S. Supinski, Paul F. Netzel, Philip M. Westgate, Elizabeth A. Schroder, Lin Wang and Leigh Ann Callahan

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:308

    Content type: Research

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  5. Sepsis is a common consequence of infection, associated with a mortality rate > 25%. Although community-acquired sepsis is more common, hospital-acquired infection is more lethal. The most common site of infec...

    Authors: Michael S. Niederman, Rebecca M. Baron, Lila Bouadma, Thierry Calandra, Nick Daneman, Jan DeWaele, Marin H. Kollef, Jeffrey Lipman and Girish B. Nair

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:307

    Content type: Review

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  6. Awake prone position is an emerging rescue therapy applied in patients undergoing noninvasive ventilation (NIV) for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (ARF) related to novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Al...

    Authors: Gianmaria Cammarota, Elisa Rossi, Leonardo Vitali, Rachele Simonte, Tiziano Sannipoli, Francesco Anniciello, Luigi Vetrugno, Elena Bignami, Cecilia Becattini, Simonetta Tesoro, Danila Azzolina, Angelo Giacomucci, Paolo Navalesi and Edoardo De Robertis

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:305

    Content type: Research

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  7. The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has underlined the urgent need for reliable, multicenter, and full-admission intensive care data to advance our understanding of the course of the disease and i...

    Authors: Lucas M. Fleuren, Tariq A. Dam, Michele Tonutti, Daan P. de Bruin, Robbert C. A. Lalisang, Diederik Gommers, Olaf L. Cremer, Rob J. Bosman, Sander Rigter, Evert-Jan Wils, Tim Frenzel, Dave A. Dongelmans, Remko de Jong, Marco Peters, Marlijn J. A. Kamps, Dharmanand Ramnarain…

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:304

    Content type: Research

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  8. Through venous contraction, norepinephrine (NE) increases stressed blood volume and mean systemic pressure (Pms) and exerts a “fluid-like” effect. When both fluid and NE are administered, Pms may not only resu...

    Authors: Imane Adda, Christopher Lai, Jean-Louis Teboul, Laurent Guerin, Francesco Gavelli and Xavier Monnet

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:302

    Content type: Research

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  9. Long-term outbreaks of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli related to hospital-building water systems have been described. However, successful mitigation strategies have rarely been reported. In particul...

    Authors: Gaud Catho, R. Martischang, F. Boroli, M. N. Chraïti, Y. Martin, Z. Koyluk Tomsuk, G. Renzi, J. Schrenzel, J. Pugin, P. Nordmann, D. S. Blanc and S. Harbarth

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:301

    Content type: Research

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  10. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may predispose patients to thrombotic events. The best anticoagulation strategy for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in such patients is still under debate. The p...

    Authors: Eduardo de Oliveira Valle, Carla Paulina Sandoval Cabrera, Claudia Coimbra César de Albuquerque, Giovanio Vieira da Silva, Márcia Fernanda Arantes de Oliveira, Gabriel Teixeira Montezuma Sales, Igor Smolentzov, Bernardo Vergara Reichert, Lucia Andrade, Victor Faria Seabra, Paulo Ricardo Gessolo Lins and Camila Eleuterio Rodrigues

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:299

    Content type: Research

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  11. Intensive Care Resources are heavily utilized during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, risk stratification and prediction of SARS-CoV-2 patient clinical outcomes upon ICU admission remain inadequate. This study ...

    Authors: Harry Magunia, Simone Lederer, Raphael Verbuecheln, Bryant Joseph Gilot, Michael Koeppen, Helene A. Haeberle, Valbona Mirakaj, Pascal Hofmann, Gernot Marx, Johannes Bickenbach, Boris Nohe, Michael Lay, Claudia Spies, Andreas Edel, Fridtjof Schiefenhövel, Tim Rahmel…

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:295

    Content type: Research

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  12. Preliminary studies have suggested that the renin-angiotensin system is activated in critical illness and associated with mortality and kidney outcomes. We sought to assess in a larger, multicenter study the r...

    Authors: Alexander H. Flannery, Victor Ortiz-Soriano, Xilong Li, Fabiola G. Gianella, Robert D. Toto, Orson W. Moe, Prasad Devarajan, Stuart L. Goldstein and Javier A. Neyra

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:294

    Content type: Research

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  13. Prone positioning (PP) improves oxygenation and respiratory mechanics and is associated with lower mortality in patients with moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Despite this, some p...

    Authors: Wynne Hsing Poon, Kollengode Ramanathan, Ryan Ruiyang Ling, Isabelle Xiaorui Yang, Chuen Seng Tan, Matthieu Schmidt and Kiran Shekar

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:292

    Content type: Research

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    The Letter to this article has been published in Critical Care 2021 25:361

  14. External ventricular drain (EVD)-related infections (EVDIs) are feared complications that are difficult to rapidly and correctly diagnose, which can lead to unnecessary treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotic...

    Authors: Marcus Bådholm, Jonas Blixt, Martin Glimåker, Anders Ternhag, Jonas Hedlund and David W. Nelson

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:291

    Content type: Research

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  15. Ceftolozane/tazobactam is approved for treatment of hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP) at double the dose approved for other infection sites. Among nosocomial pneumonia sub...

    Authors: Jean-François Timsit, Jennifer A. Huntington, Richard G. Wunderink, Nobuaki Shime, Marin H. Kollef, Ülo Kivistik, Martin Nováček, Álvaro Réa-Neto, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Brian Yu, Erin H. Jensen, Joan R. Butterton, Dominik J. Wolf, Elizabeth G. Rhee and Christopher J. Bruno

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:290

    Content type: Research

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  16. Cardiogenic shock (CS) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The impact of beta-blocker (BB) use on patients who develop CS remains unknown. We sought to evaluate the clinical outcomes and he...

    Authors: Pietro Di Santo, Rebecca Mathew, Richard G. Jung, Trevor Simard, Stephanie Skanes, Brennan Mao, F. Daniel Ramirez, Jeffrey A. Marbach, Omar Abdel-Razek, Pouya Motazedian, Simon Parlow, Kevin E. Boczar, Gianni D’Egidio, Steven Hawken, Jordan Bernick, George A. Wells…

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:289

    Content type: Research

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  17. Acute kidney injury (AKI) in pediatric critical care patients is diagnosed using elevated serum creatinine, which occurs only after kidney impairment. There are no treatments other than supportive care for AKI...

    Authors: Junzi Dong, Ting Feng, Binod Thapa-Chhetry, Byung Gu Cho, Tunu Shum, David P. Inwald, Christopher J. L. Newth and Vinay U. Vaidya

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:288

    Content type: Research

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  18. To test the hypothesis that Intensive Care Unit (ICU) doctors and nurses differ in their personal preferences for treatment from the general population, and whether doctors and nurses make different choices wh...

    Authors: Matthew H. Anstey, Imogen A. Mitchell, Charlie Corke, Lauren Murray, Marion Mitchell, Andrew Udy, Vineet Sarode, Nhi Nguyen, Oliver Flower, Kwok M. Ho, Edward Litton, Bradley Wibrow and Richard Norman

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:287

    Content type: Research

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  19. As emerging countries, China, Russia, and South Africa are establishing and/or improving their trauma systems. China has recently established a trauma system named “the Chinese Regional Trauma Care System” and...

    Authors: Jing Zhou, Tianbing Wang, Igor Belenkiy, Timothy Craig Hardcastle, Jean-Jacques Rouby and Baoguo Jiang

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:286

    Content type: Review

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  20. Authors: Dominik Johannes Hoechter, Andrea Sabine Becker-Pennrich, Benjamin Peter Geisler, Bernhard Zwissler, Michael Irlbeck, Kollengode Ramanathan, Kiran Shekar, Ryan Ruiyang Ling, Ryan Barbaro, Graeme MacLaren, Eddy Fan and Daniel Brodie

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:285

    Content type: Letter

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    The original article was published in Critical Care 2021 25:211

  21. Authors: Saad Nseir, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Pedro Povoa, Matthieu Metzelard, Damien Du Cheyron, Fabien Lambiotte, Fabienne Tamion, Marie Labruyere, Demosthenes Makris, Claire Boulle Geronimi, Marc Pinetonde Chambrun, Martine Nyunga, Olivier Pouly, Bruno Mégarbane, Anastasia Saade, Gemma Gomà…

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:284

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Critical Care 2021 25:177

  22. The intensity of ventilation, reflected by driving pressure (ΔP) and mechanical power (MP), has an association with outcome in invasively ventilated patients with or without acute respiratory distress syndrome...

    Authors: Michiel T. U. Schuijt, Marcus J. Schultz, Frederique Paulus and Ary Serpa Neto

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:283

    Content type: Research

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  23. Death in intensive care units (ICUs) may increase bereaved family members’ risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, posttraumatic stress-related symptoms (hereafter as PTSD symptoms) and their p...

    Authors: Siew Tzuh Tang, Chung-Chi Huang, Tsung-Hui Hu, Wen-Chi Chou, Li-Pang Chuang and Ming Chu Chiang

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:282

    Content type: Research

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    The Letter to this article has been published in Critical Care 2021 25:384

  24. Procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were previously shown to have value for the detection of secondary infections in critically ill COVID-19 patients. However, since the introduction of immunomodu...

    Authors: Emma J. Kooistra, Miranda van Berkel, Noortje F. van Kempen, Celine R. M. van Latum, Niklas Bruse, Tim Frenzel, Maarten J. W. van den Berg, Jeroen A. Schouten, Matthijs Kox and Peter Pickkers

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:281

    Content type: Research

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  25. The respiratory system reacts instantaneously to intrinsic and extrinsic inputs. This adaptability results in significant fluctuations in breathing parameters, such as respiratory rate, tidal volume, and inspi...

    Authors: Oscar F. C. van den Bosch, Ricardo Alvarez-Jimenez, Harm-Jan de Grooth, Armand R. J. Girbes and Stephan A. Loer

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:280

    Content type: Review

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  26. Survivors of critical illness experience long-term functional challenges, which are complex, heterogeneous, and multifactorial in nature. Although the importance of rehabilitation interventions after intensive...

    Authors: Mel E. Major, Daniela Dettling-Ihnenfeldt, Stephan P. J. Ramaekers, Raoul H. H. Engelbert and Marike van der Schaaf

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:279

    Content type: Research

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  27. Acute brain injuries are associated with high mortality rates and poor long-term functional outcomes. Measurement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in patients with acute brain injuries may help elucidat...

    Authors: Carlos A. Santacruz, Jean-Louis Vincent, Andres Bader, Luis A. Rincón-Gutiérrez, Claudia Dominguez-Curell, David Communi and Fabio S. Taccone

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:278

    Content type: Research

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  28. Outcome data about the use of tranexamic acid (TXA) in civilian patients in mature trauma systems are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine how severely injured patients are affected by the widesprea...

    Authors: Sebastian Imach, Arasch Wafaisade, Rolf Lefering, Andreas Böhmer, Mark Schieren, Victor Suárez and Matthias Fröhlich

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:277

    Content type: Research

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    The Letter to this article has been published in Critical Care 2021 25:379

  29. Typical features differentiate COVID-19-associated lung injury from acute respiratory distress syndrome. The clinical role of chest computed tomography (CT) in describing the progression of COVID-19-associated...

    Authors: Mariangela Pellegrini, Aleksandra Larina, Evangelos Mourtos, Robert Frithiof, Miklos Lipcsey, Michael Hultström, Monica Segelsjö, Tomas Hansen and Gaetano Perchiazzi

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:276

    Content type: Research

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  30. Authors: Rosanna Vaschetto, Alessandro Pecere, Gavin D. Perkins, Dipesh Mistry, Gianmaria Cammarota, Federico Longhini, Miguel Ferrer, Renata Pletsch-Assunção, Michele Carron, Francesca Moretto, Haibo Qiu, Francesco Della Corte, Francesco Barone-Adesi and Paolo Navalesi

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:272

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Critical Care 2021 25:189

  31. Acute respiratory failure (ARF) can progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome and death. Biomarkers may allow for risk stratification and prognostic enrichment in ARF. Thrombomodulin (TM) is a transmembr...

    Authors: Ana Carolina Costa Monteiro, Heidi Flori, Mary K. Dahmer, Myung Shin Sim, Michael W. Quasney, Martha A. Q. Curley, Michael A. Matthay and Anil Sapru

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:271

    Content type: Research

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  32. Noninvasive respiratory support (NIRS) has been diffusely employed outside the intensive care unit (ICU) to face the high request of ventilatory support due to the massive influx of patients with acute respira...

    Authors: Gianmaria Cammarota, Teresa Esposito, Danila Azzolina, Roberto Cosentini, Francesco Menzella, Stefano Aliberti, Andrea Coppadoro, Giacomo Bellani, Giuseppe Foti, Giacomo Grasselli, Maurizio Cecconi, Antonio Pesenti, Michele Vitacca, Tom Lawton, V. Marco Ranieri, Sandro Luigi Di Domenico…

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:268

    Content type: Research

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  33. Hyperchloremia and chloride load have been associated with worse clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. We sought to evaluate the electrolyte profile and clinical outcomes associated with a unit-wide tr...

    Authors: Matthew F. Barhight, Delphine Nelson, Thomas Moran, Jessica Christiano and L. Nelson Sanchez-Pinto

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:266

    Content type: Research

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  34. Perioperative cardiac arrest is a rare complication with an incidence of around 1 in 1400 cases, but it carries a high burden of mortality reaching up to 70% at 30 days. Despite its specificities, guidelines f...

    Authors: Athanasios Chalkias, Nicolas Mongardon, Vladimir Boboshko, Vladimir Cerny, Anne-Laure Constant, Quentin De Roux, Gabriele Finco, Francesca Fumagalli, Eleana Gkamprela, Stéphane Legriel, Vladimir Lomivorotov, Aurora Magliocca, Panagiotis Makaronis, Ioannis Mamais, Iliana Mani, Theodoros Mavridis…

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:265

    Content type: Review

    Published on: