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Table 2 Clinical information

From: A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing mortality in pre-hospital tracheal intubation to emergency department intubation in trauma patients

Study ID Mortality PHI Mortality EDI ISS PHI ISS EDI GCS PHI GCS EDI Percentage in shock/average SBP PHI Percentage in shock/average SBP EDI AOR PHI vs. EDI Methodological quality determined by assessment tool Conclusion of article
Al-Thani 2014 [27] 126/239 45/243 25.3 21.3 6.9 12.1 avg 127.9 avg. 129.4 AOR 2.4 (0.61–9.44) GCS, ISS, head injury Fair PHI associated with worse outcome
Arbabi 2004 [28]    Not specified Not specified      AOR in favour of PHI 3.0 (1.9–4.9). Compared to patients not intubated at all, AOR 1.1 (0.7–1.9) Poor PHI associated with better outcome, but analysis included GCS in paralyzed patients
Bernard 2010 [29] 53/160 55/152 30.5 30.1 5 5 avg 128 avg 129 Randomized patients, no AOR given Good PHI had no significant impact on mortality, but improved neurological outcome
Bochicchio 2003 [30] 18/78 14/113 20.1 19.2 4 4.4 avg 105 avg 111 No adjustments made, but no significant differences between groups Fair PHI associated with worse outcome
Bukur 2011 [31] 55/61 286/2305 26.7 18.4 3.3 11.7 73.8 4.5 5 (1.7–13.7), adjusted for mechanism of injury, mean SBP, hypotension, mean GCS, GCS <8, head AIS, mean ISS, ISS >16 Fair PHI associated with worse outcome
Davis 2005 (I) [33] 1390/2414 537/1833 36.6 28.3 4.4 8 72 50 AOR 2.12 (1.81–2.5). AOR in article given as an inverse variant (0.47 (0.40–0.55). Corrected for age, gender, mechanism of injury, GCS, head AIS, ISS, shock Fair PHI associated with worse outcome
Davis 2005 (II) [32] 531/1250 428/993        AOR 1.42 (1.13–1.78) adjusted for age, sex, mechanism, preadmission hypotension, head AIS, ISS and pre-intubation GCS Fair PHI by aeromedical teams associated with better outcome than EDI after ground transport
Eckert 2004 [35]    26 18 4 8 avg 132 avg 132 No AOR given Fair PHI associated with worse outcome
Eckert 2006 [34] 16/62 51/353 21 19 5 7 avg 104 avg 125 AOR for intubation in the field 2.3 (1.1-4.9), ED 3.6 (2.5-5.2), inpatient 0.28 (0.2–0.4) Fair PHI associated with worse outcome
Eckstein 2000 [36] 87/93 268/403 35 29      AOR for pre-hospital intubation 5.3 (2.3–14.2). Corrected for sex, mechanism of injury and ISS Fair PHI associated with worse outcome
Evans 2010 [38] 32/412 10/160 27.2 27 4.1 11.6 avg 122,4 avg 125,5 No AOR given Fair No significant differences in outcomes between groups
Evans 2013 [37] 182/269 315/758 31 26 3 6 28.8 15.3 Logistic regression analysis including hypotension, age, ISS, GCS. Pre-hospital intubation 2.8 (1.1–7.6) Trauma centre intubation 2.6 (1.3–5.6) Fair PHI associated with worse outcome
Franschman 2011 [39] 101/233 42/103 32 25 3 5 23 11 No AOR given Fair No significant differences in outcomes between groups
Irvin 2010 [40] 1539/2491 2985/8457 31.6 24.2 3 3 avg 121,3 avg 130,1 Corrected for ISS, SBP, penetrating or blunt trauma, age, head injuries and improved GCS en route. For all patients AOR 1.93 (1.74–2.15)
Head injury only AOR 1.99 (1.35–2.93)
Body injury only AOR 2.54 (1.85–3.48)
Fair PHI associated with worse outcome
Oswalt 1992 [41] 9/18 9/26 31.4 24.7 5.2 5.9 avg 78,5 avg 131 No AOR given Fair No significant differences in outcomes between groups
Shafi 2005 [42] 818/1185 4105/7601 35 33 3.7 4.1 48 33 Logistic regression including age, ISS, specific injuries, pre-existing conditions, PH-fluids and CPR. Survival 0.531 (0.441–0.65)
Inverse value: 1.88 (1.54–2.32)
Fair PHI associated with worse outcome
Sloane 2000 [17] 3/21 12/54 31.4 29 5.2 5.8    No AOR given Fair No significant differences in mortality between groups, but higher occurrence of pneumonia in PHI group
Sollid 2010 [43] 108/240 10/47    3 6    No AOR given Fair Beyond scope of article
Tracy 2006 [44] 86/271 101/357 25.3 22.4 4 8.3    No AOR given Fair No significant differences in outcomes between groups
Tuma 2014 [45] 57/105 17/105 28 27    avg 129 avg 142 Unclear rationale for AOR Fair PHI associated with worse outcome
Vandromme 2011 [46] 30/64 35/85 38 33.7 4.1 5.9 avg 127,4 avg 151,3 Adjusted for GCS, SBP, RR and ISS. Adjusted RR 0.68 (0.36–1.19). Not possible to work out adjusted odds ratio Fair No significant differences in outcomes between groups
Wang 2004 [47] 871/1797 649/2301      21.8 8.7 Multivariate logistic regression with ISS, AIS-head and admission SBP. AOR 3.99 (3.21–4.93) Fair PHI associated with worse outcome
  1. PHI pre-hospital intubation, EDI emergency department intubation, ISS injury severity score, GCS Glasgow coma scale, SBP systolic blood pressure, avg average, AOR adjusted odds ratio, ED emergency department, RR risk ratio , AIS abbreviated injury scale